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Google’s New Skybox For Good Program Gives Real-Time Satellite Imagery To Nonprofits


On the heels of acquiring satellite startup Skybox in August, Google and Skybox have announced the Skybox for Good program, which will provide real-time satellite imagery to organizations and programs that save lives, protect the environment, promote education and positively impact humanity, according to the official blog post.

The program launches today in beta with a small group of partners. The images provided to these organizations will be publicly available under a Creative Commons license.

This will allow organizations like Sky Truth and Appalachian Voices to keep an eye on “mountain-top removal mining,” which threatens to devastate the forests of the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia. Another example given in the announcement was images of a Northern Sri Lanka village called Nagarkovil, which were given to HALO to help them verify that the area was safe, after previously removing land mines.

The initiative comes from the Google Earth Outreach team, the main goal being to give extra knowledge and resources to nonprofit organizations that need help in telling their stories or achieving their intended missions.

While the program will undoubtedly benefit its nonprofit partners in their quests for a safer, happier, healthier world, it’s also an interesting juxtaposition that puts surveillance (at least at the satellite level) in a positive light. That’s a problematic proposition, considering what the revelations the past couple of years have brought us with respect to privacy.

In any case, you can check out all of the currently available images from the program on this map.

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Security Will Need Big Insight, Not Just Big Data


Editor’s note: Neill Occhiogrosso is a partner at Costanoa Venture Capital.

In looking for new opportunities in security and many other sectors, we look for the echoes of the current IT mega-trends: cloud, mobile, big data. These trends, and especially the interactions between them, are dramatically changing security needs. Add to that the changing profile of would-be hackers — now a frightening mix of international organized crime and employees of enemy governments — and we see the potential for several new solutions that can each be the foundation of one or more successful companies.

The first is the application of big data technologies to produce security insights. This is a classic example of “Applied Big Data,” the application of new analytic technologies to a current business problem. Security professionals are drowning in log files, vulnerability scan reports, alerts, reports, and more, but the data is not actionable.

This isn’t an idle observation: Several high-profile breaches happened through vulnerabilities that had been documented months or sometimes years prior. The future lies in analyzing this data to give security professionals a comprehensive view of their security posture. Tell them what is at risk, how severe the risk, how important the asset is, and how to fix it. We see tremendous promise in Risk I/O’s approach to this problem, and we’re proud to have led their most recent investment.

Another area for exploration is security solutions that follow assets to protect them wherever they are. With cloud infrastructures (both public and private) and bring-your-own-device mobile enterprises, there is no perimeter and every layer of the stack is dynamic. Security professionals need to be able to apply security policies to applications, data, and users wherever they are, and those policies need to adapt based on the changing context.

There’s an increasingly popular saying that there are two types of organizations now: those that have been breached, and those that just don’t know it yet. As attacks have become too sophisticated for signature-based detection, there is a need for solutions that quickly notice anomalous and potentially dangerous behavior (likely leveraging machine learning) to prevent breaches or — failing that — detect malicious behavior once a breach has occurred, and minimize its impact.

Guardian Analytics, another Costanoa investment, applies behavioral analytics to data already resident in online banking platforms to prevent a broad range of fraudulent activity. This is just one example of applying data science to existing data sets to address more nebulous threats. There will be more opportunities looking at different applications and different types of attacks.

Finally, there is also the need for efficient data capture and analysis that can look broadly and historically across an infrastructure, sometimes trailing several months, to see when and how a breach occurred, and what the consequences were. This is a prototypical big data problem. It involves great volume, variety, and velocity of data.  It now may be tractable, and we are on the lookout for solutions.

We live in an exciting time, but unfortunately in the case of security, that is a double-edged sword. New technologies present new opportunities for criminals. We are optimistic that great new companies are emerging to rise to the challenge.

IMAGE BY Bryce Durbin

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Top The Charts With Your Mobile Game App This Holiday Season


Editor’s note: Xavier Bourlard is head of mobile EUR/US for Headway Digital.

The holiday season is fast approaching, and for mobile gaming studios it’s make or break time. How can you earn one of the coveted spots in Apple Store’s Top 10 list without exhausting your marketing budget? Below are five steps to help you develop an effective strategy for getting your mobile game apps noticed by consumers this holiday season.

Before we get started, just a brief warning. As the holiday season advances, expect to see lots of mobile ad companies promising you a spot in the Top 10 list in any and every country you desire. Beware of such claims – they may be scams. Many, of course, are quite legit, but you should always question their sources and methodologies before turning your burst campaigns over to them.

Step 1: Soft Launch — Test and learn

By now you should have your contours of strategy in place (i.e. OS release, app title, countries to launch in – all benchmarked by market). Plan a soft launch for early November. That means you need to choose the right icon, keywords, pictures, text and video trailer to display in the online stores. Here’s where your A/B testing skills come into play. Additionally, consider engaging a few cost-per-install ad networks that specialize in mobile installs. These early learnings will help you define your quality metrics.

Step 2: Define your KPIs and quality metrics

How will you measure success? Lifetime value? Percent of spenders? Retention rate? A good strategy is to select a mix of short- and long-term indicators. For instance, start with a short-term indicator such as a three- or seven-day retention rate. For the long term, consider the total amount of in-app purchases after one month. These metrics can help you assess profitability, as well as identify the best pay per install (PPI) partners for acquiring new gaming users and high quality downloads.

At this step, you’ll need to have a good handle on the performance and profitability of your mobile-ad campaigns so you can determine the maximum cost-per-install (CPI) you’re willing to offer mobile-app traffic partners.

Step 3: Launch mid/end November

The goal of this step is two-fold. The first is to select the partners for your burst campaign, the second is to choose who you’ll engage long term.

Select at least five partners to drive traffic to your mobile game, generate reviews and ratings in the stores, and monitor the performance (as measured by quality of gamers) of each. Compare results with the KPIs you’ve established.

The perfect posse will include a social network, a gaming monetization platform, a programmatic platform with advanced targeting criteria, and one or two mobile gaming ad networks.

Now it’s time to schedule your burst.

Step 4: The burst

To create a burst in the store, you’ll need a massive number of installs to occur for several days in a row. The post-burst lift in rankings will lead to plenty of organic users due to your position within the store.

Keep in mind that some 20+ million devices will be activated on Christmas Day, so the competition will be fierce (and probably cost-prohibitive). In 2012, some Japanese gaming studios paid up to $10 CPI to enter the U.S. market during the Christmas week. Insane? Yes, this is why the best strategy is to book and execute your burst in advance, perhaps one or two weeks before Christmas, in order to secure a lower CPI.

Step 5: Get ready for the holidays

So what’s the point of doing a burst a week before Christmas if you’re not in the Top 10 on the day when 20 million consumers will open their tablets and mobiles?

The strategy I propose is simple: Drive up your ranking when it’s more cost-effective to do so by working with the partners you’ve tested in November and found to deliver strong results. Next, consider less costly re-engagement campaigns during the holiday week to drive revenue and retention. Remember, consumers will have more time on their hands to play with their new devices, so you’ll want to remind them of the fun they had with your game.

With endurance and strategy, your mobile game just may be one of the winners of the burst holiday race. Follow these steps to control your ad costs, maximize your profit, and amass a healthy volume of qualified gaming users.

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Twitpic Data Will Stay Alive “For Now” Thanks To An Agreement With Twitter


And in a somewhat happy turn of events, Twitpic has announced that it has reached an agreement with Twitter to keep Twitpic photos and links alive, giving Twitter control over the domain and the full photo archive.

However, the agreement also states that Twitpic will no longer be taking any new photos or data and will exist in a read-only mode. Apps on the App Store and Google Play have been removed, but users will still be able to log in, delete content or the account itself, and export and/or download data.

This comes after a “roller coaster ride” of the past few months. In September, Twitpic founder and CEO Noah Everett announced that the service would shut down after Twitter came after the service over the Twitpic trademark, threatening to remove the service’s access to Twitter’s API.

“This came as a shock to us since Twitpic has been around since early 2008, and our trademark application has been in the USPTO since 2009,” Everett wrote in a blog post.

Shortly thereafter, rumors circulated that Twitpic might be bought in order to save the service and the data that lives on it, until Everett once again admitted defeat and announced that he had given up on finding acquirers.

It’s with a heavy heart that I announce again that Twitpic will be shutting down on October 25th. We worked through a handful of potential acquirers and exhausted all potential options. We were almost certain we had found a new home for Twitpic (hence our previous tweet), but agreeable terms could not be met.

According to the blog post from today, which you can read below, it seems Everett won’t be staying on at Twitter or Twitpic.

Today marks the end of a difficult battle for Twitpic, whether it’s a happy or sad ending.

First off I want to say thank you to everyone who has used Twitpic over the years and for your patience with us over the last couple of months. As you know it’s been quite the roller coaster ride.

We weren’t able to find a way to keep Twitpic independent. However, I’m happy to announce that we have reached an agreement with Twitter to give them the Twitpic domain and photo archive, thus keeping the photos and links alive for the time being. Twitter shares our goal of protecting our users and this data. Also, since Twitpic’s user base consists of Twitter users, it makes sense to keep this data with Twitter.

What this means for Twitpic users:

  • Twitpic will no longer be taking on new photos or data (the site will be in a read-only mode)
  • The iOS and Android apps have been removed from the app stores and will no longer be supported
  • You will still be able to login to your profile to delete content or delete your account on
  • You can still export and download your data / photo archive on

This will be my (@noaheverett) final chapter with Twitpic, and again I want to say thank you for allowing me to be a part of your photo sharing memories for nearly seven years. It has been an honor.

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CurrentC Is The Big Retailers’ Clunky Attempt To Kill Apple Pay And Credit Card Fees


Long before Apple Pay, big brick-and-mortar retail chains were conspiring to sidestep the typical 2% to 3% fees they’re charged by credit card companies when consumers pay with credit. A company called MCX (Merchant Customer Exchange), spearheaded by Walmart, was started to build a mobile payment solution that would become an app called CurrentC that’s preparing to launch, but is already in the app stores.

Rather than NFC, CurrentC uses QR codes displayed on a cashier’s screen and scanned by the consumer’s phone or vice versa to initiate and verify the transaction. The system is also designed to automatically apply discounts, use loyalty programs, and charge purchases to a variety of payment methods without passing sensitive financial data to the merchant.

Retailers including CVS and Rite-Aid were planned partners for CurrentC. Now, those businesses have pulled unofficial support for Apple Pay through their existing NFC readers, according to a report from MacRumors and memo attained by SlashGear. This implies they’ve established exclusive deals with MCX to use CurrentC as their mobile payment option.

Thanks to research shared with TechCrunch by Stanford student and developer sleuth Andrew Aude, we have more details on MCX’s plan and a closer look at the CurrentC app.

A Multi-Year Plot To Ditch Credit Card Fees

Originally incorporated in 2011, MCX spent years in a sort of stealth mode working on the payments user experience. The company is run by merchants including Walmart, Target, Best Buy, CVS, Shell Oil, Darden Restaurants (Olive Garden), HMSHost (airport restaurants), Hy-Vee (supermarkets), Lowes, Michaels, Publix Super Markets, and Sears. Wal-Mart VP and Assistant Treasurer Mike Cook is considered the MCX group’s de facto CEO, with some joking that MCX stands for Mike Cook Exchange, as FierceRetail reported.

Together, the companies operate over 110,000 retail locations and process over $1 trillion in payments annually, with a significant chunk coming in the form of credit card payments that cost the retailers fees.

Walmart has long voiced its disdain for credit card processing fees that drain its slim margins, and even filed an anti-trust lawsuit against Visa and MasterCard over them back in 2003, but rejected the settlement they offered because it wanted more.

The idea behind MCX was that if enough retailers teamed up, they could convince consumers to adopt their mobile payment system that would let retailers avoid paying credit card fees in the 2% to 3% range by processing payments through Automatic Clearing House transactions through bank accounts that have much smaller fees. MCX’s app could also help retailers by encouraging loyalty to participating merchants, and possibly provide them additional intelligence on their customers.

If MCX’s app caught on, partnered retailers could escape tons of fees, which could directly increase their profits. Alternatively, they could use the leverage of MCX and the threat of sidestepping the processing fees to negotiate lower fees with the credit card companies. Former Walmart CEO Lee Scott reportedly once said “I don’t know that MCX will succeed, and I don’t care. As long as Visa suffers.”

To speed up development, MCX struck a deal to use Paydiant’s white-labeled mobile wallet system on the backend that works with ACH to reduce fees, which was announced in February 2012. Paydiant has raised around $35 million for its payment solution’s development.

In January 2013, Fierce Retail reported MCX had been asking retailers in 2012 to pay a big up-front fee from $250,000 to $500,000 to get on board, and sign 3-year mobile payment app exclusivity deals with MCX. Retailers who signed up may have had a 1-year grace period from the start of their exclusivity contract to bail out of the deal. If Apple Pay gains steam early, some retailers might look to take advantage of this option to ditch MCX. However, if deals were signed in 2012, that grace period is long gone but retailers may be coming up on the end of their exclusivity agreements even though CurrentC hasn’t launched yet,

Those exclusivity deals may be why CVS and Rite-Aid are reportedly pulling unofficial support for Apple Pay on their NFC readers. In a memo to employees, attained by SlashGear, Rite Aid wrote:

“Please note that we do not accept Apple Pay at this time. However we are currently working with a group of large retailers to develop a mobile wallet that allows for mobile payments attached to credit cards and bank accounts directly from a smart phone. We expect to have this feature available in the first half of 2015.

If customers attempt to pay for a transaction with Apple Pay, a message will prompt both customer and cashier for a different form of payment. Please instruct cashiers to apologize to the customer and explain that we do not currently accept Apple Pay, but will have our own mobile wallet next year.”

Until then, Apple Pay may gain steam with more graceful NFC payments, which could make CurrentC’s QR code method seems clunky and undesireable when it finally launches.

The CurrentC App

CurrentC’s app is now in the iOS and Android app store, but can only be used by those with an invite code. Luckily, Aude was able to attain these screenshots and information.

When you sign up for CurrentC, you’re supposed to add your bank account. This lets CurrentC process payments for you without retailers having to pay the steep credit card processing fee. You can also add retailers’ loyalty credit cards or gift cards as payment methods. It’s possible that if you already have your bank account connected to a partner retailer’s loyalty or credit card, you may be able to automatically link that bank account to your CurrentC account rather than going through the clumsy standard process.

When it’s time for a user to checkout, they request to pay with CurrentC. The consumer then unlocks their phone, opens the CurrentC app, opens the code scanner, and scans the QR code shown on the cashier’s screen. In some case, the reverse may happen where the consumer’s CurrentC app displays a payment code and the cashier scans it. If a QR code can’t be generated, a manually entered numeric code may be offered.

Rather than sending the customer’s financial data over the air, transactions trigger the transmission of a token placeholder. This is then securely converted by the financial institution to process the ACH payment and charge the user.

CurrentC also has a method in place for paying at gas station pumps. It shows the consumer a code on their phone that can then be entered on the pump keypad to initiate a CurrentC payment.

CurrentC includes a merchant map for finding participating retailers. Discounts and coupons will be automatically applied to the purchase, and any loyalty program points will be automatically pegged to the customer’s account. CurrentC users will also be able to check their receipts in the app. These loyalty and discount programs may be the main selling point retailers use to try to convince customers to signup for CurrentC.

One refreshing inclusion in the app is a visual breakdown of what data CurrentC receives from users, who it can be shared with, and what data sharing is optional.

CurrentC notes it may share info with your device maker, app store, or developer tool makers. Oddly, it will collect health data. Precise location information is used to verify you’re at the retailer where you’re making a transaction, and if you opt in it can be used for marketing or advertising. CurrentC notes that you can opt in to be able to capture and store photos in the app for a hypothetical visual shopping list or other features down the road.

After his investigation of the app, Aude told me “CurrentC borders on the creepy line” due to it pulling health info. He also that found that its Terms Of Service leaves high liability for fraud to the user if someone else is able to get access to a user’s phone and make CurrentC payments.

Will Anyone Want CurrentC? Probably Not

CurrentC is now being tested at some retail locations in Minnesota. Before CurrentC can rolled out, point of sale systems at retailers need to be modified, which can take time and explains the early 2015 launch date cited in the internal Rite Aid memo attained by SlashGear.

CurrentC doesn’t rely on new technology like NFC or Bluetooth LE, so it will likely be compatible with older iPhones and Androids, unlike the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus-only Apple Pay. That could give it some broad appeal. MCX will also tout the automatic discount and loyalty programs that could appeal to bargain-hunters.

The problem with the CurrentC system, as John Gruber points out, is that it’s based more around solving the retailers’ credit card fee problems than the consumers’ payment friction problems. Users have to open their phone, open CurrentC, open the scanner, scan the code from the cashier, and wait for the transaction to be confirmed. That may present more friction than simply paying with a credit card, and it’s certainly harder than a quick Touch ID verification and tap of Apple Pay.

The only way CurrentC has a real chance is if it can organize some big discount for all CurrentC payments across retailers. For example, if it said you’d get 5% off for paying with CurrentC, some people might be willing to use it. In the short-term, this would eradicate any savings on credit card fees for the merchants. But eventually, if the app gains a loyal user base it could scale back those fees to start reaping the benefits of sidestepping credit cards.

If CurrentC doesn’t offer a vivid value proposition to consumers, its likely to go the way of the dinosaur while Apple Pay pushes the evolution of the rest of the mobile payments industry.

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Bitcoin 2.0: Sidechains And Ethereum And Zerocash, Oh My!


Strange, interesting, and wildly ambitious things are afoot in the world of Bitcoin and blockchains. I give you Zerocash, a completely anonymous currency; Ethereum, an blockchain platform designed to decentralize much of the Internet; and sidechains, a proposal to accelerate the evolution of Bitcoin itself. Any one of these could conceivably become a very big deal. All three? Prick up your ears.

Of Bitcoins And Blockchains

If you’re not au fait with blockchains, your head may already be swimming. Some background: Bitcoin, the infamous cryptocurrency, is built on a new kind of distributed-consensus technology called a blockchain, which allows transactions to be securely stored and verified without any centralized authority at all, because (to oversimplify) they are validated by the entire network.

Its success has spawned scores of variant cryptocurrencies, known as “altcoins,” the most famous of which is Dogecoin. But Bitcoin remains, by far, the big dog.

If you control more than half of the computations that power any cryptocurrency, then you can spend the same money more than once: a “51% attack.” Altcoins are especially vulnerable. But the stunning amount of computing power being poured into the Bitcoin network renders it (probably) effectively immune to such an attack, as per this mindboggling graph from–

The Bitcoin mining network is currently performing some three hundred quadrillion hash computations per second to secure and verify Bitcoin transactions. (If you think that’s environmentally wasteful, compare it to gold mining.) Meanwhile, despite its much-publicized decline of late, Bitcoin still has a collective market capitalization of nearly $5 billion, twice what it was a year ago.

Why You Should Care

Bitcoin is only mildly interesting as a store of value; there are many good alternatives. It’s more interesting as a means to transfer money to anywhere and anyone, with greater speed and lower transaction fees than most alternatives, with no ID requirements.

But it’s really interesting because it’s the world’s first form of programmable money.

Many people don’t appreciate that Bitcoin supports a simple scripting language which can orchestrate transactions. (In fact all transactions actually run as scripts.) This language already supports cases such as: deposits that automatically revert after a period of time, escrow transactions, transactions which rely on some external condition (albeit in a complex way that requires a third-party “oracle”), and more.

What are all of the potential applications of fully programmable money? Especially if the capabilities of that scripting language are expanded? I don’t know, and neither do you. It’s the proverbial whole new ball game.

But progress is tricky. Bitcoin is the only cryptocurrency powered and secured by a truly gargantuan mining network, but because it’s worth so much, and its network is so widespread, changes to Bitcoin itself are necessarily promulgated very slowly, and experimentation is done with extreme tentative caution. So we can try out new kinds of blockchains and cryptocurrencies (like Ethereum and Zerocash), or we can rely on the value, scarcity and (technical) stability of Bitcoin, but we can’t do both. Right?

…Wrong, says Adam Back.

Sidechains: Back, Hill, and Blockstream

The “three hundred quadrillion hashes” mentioned up above refer to attempts to satisfy the Hashcash proof-of-work function that Adam Back invented way back in 1997, used today to verify Bitcoin transactions. Now Back is back with a new proposal: sidechains, which would allow Bitcoins (and other blockchain assets) to be transferred between blockchains.

Back and co. are not acting purely out of technical benevolence. He and a group of co-founders, including several core Bitcoin developers, headed by former Zero-Knowledge Systems CEO Austin Hill, have a launched a startup called Blockstream. According to Coindesk, they have already raised $15 million in an ongoing funding round, and added Reid Hoffman to their board. Their exact business remains mysterious, but is built around sidechains. (The sidechain code itself will apparently be open-source. See Blockstream’s recent Reddit AMA.)

To quote the sidechains white paper (PDF):

The creation of independent but essentially similar systems is problematic … the most visible projects may be the least technically sound … discourages technical innovation while at the same time encouraging market games … We desire a world in which interoperable altchains can be easily created and used, but without unnecessarily fragmenting markets and development. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to simultaneously achieve these seemingly contradictory goals … participants do not need to be as concerned that their holdings are locked in a single experimental altchain, since sidechain coins can be redeemed

To quote, er, myself: “You could in principle have thousands of sidechains “pegged” to Bitcoin, all with different characteristics and purposes … and all of them taking advantage of the scarcity and resilience guaranteed by the main Bitcoin blockchain, which in turn could iterate to implement experimental sidechain features once they have been tried and tested.”

Blockstream has many other influential fans, including Vinod Khosla and Gavin Andresen, chief scientist of the Bitcoin Foundation (who also recently did an AMA):

There are critics, although the most visible, from Peter Todd, still stresses that “90% of the ideas in sidechains are good ideas.” His chief complaint is that either sidechains will still be vulnerable to 51% attacks, or Bitcoin miners will become more centralized, more powerful, and more dangerous. (There is also some rather more histrionic criticism.)

It’s worth noting that while one form of sidechain — a so-called “federated peg” — can be created today, for sidechains which require no external trust beyond the blockchain, some form of change to the core Bitcoin protocol will be required. At this point, though, such a change seems (to me) an inevitability.

Ethereum and Zerocash

Sidechains are far from the only “Bitcoin 2.0″ project, although they do have the unusual feature that, as far as I know, all other such projects could be built atop sidechains. The two which interest me most are Ethereum and Zerocash. (And not just me: to quote Back in the AMA, “i’m waiting for the zerocash sidechain :) “.)

Bitcoin is not anonymous. Every transaction’s sender, receiver, and amount are recorded in the blockchain’s public record. The “sender” and “receiver” are Bitcoin addresses, not names, but if anyone connects your identity to an address, its entire Bitcoin history will be apparent to everyone. (There are workarounds, but they’re flawed.) Zerocash, authored by a group of cryptographic academics, is a blockchain protocol wherein senders, receivers, and amounts are all kept entirely anonymous. In a world where privacy is withering away like ice in summer, a little more anonymity would be a welcome development.

Ethereum is another separate project scheduled to launch its “genesis block” this winter. You have to admire its creators’ ambition: its blockchain supports a full Turing-compete programming language intended to power not just programmable money but also financial derivatives, voting systems, identity registries, reputation systems, decentralized file storage, decentralized autonomous operations(!), and more. They recently raised 30,000 bitcoins, or some $14 million at current prices, by selling their own currency, “ether,” and its blockchain’s “genesis block” is due to launch this winter.

Ethereum already supports sidechains, too, out of the box. But also–you could take a Bitcoin sidechain and clone Ethereum on it! Sorry if this all hurts your head.

Warnings and Conclusions

If you’re thinking: wait, the Ethereum people sold their own made-up digital currency for someone else’s made-up digital currency, which will now be pegged against more new made-up currencies? And people trade cold hard US dollars for these? This is snake-oil nonsense! let me assure you: it’s possible that you may ultimately be proved right. But I don’t think so. Blockchains, and the new monetary applications that blockchains make possible, seem to me to be a sufficiently powerful and interesting innovation that cryptocurrencies–as a class–do in fact have inherent value, not least because you can do things with them that you can’t with traditional fiat currency.

This is highly anecdotal, but at a Blockstream event this week, I spoke to multiple people working at startups with transaction-based business models, whose companies are already up and running using traditional currency … who are now beginning to move towards Bitcoin’s blockchain as a substrate for their transactions. Not because they’re True Bitcoin Believers, but because it just makes practical and technical sense. I strongly suspect that the number of such people will begin to grow rather large as we move through the next iterations of blockchain technology.

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